The Battleship was the biggest practical starship with the most available firepower. Some would argue that these ships pushed the limits of "practical".The first Federation battleship was the USS Mars. The ship was expensive to produce, and difficult to run. Lessons from it informed the subsequent design of her sister ship, the USS Jupiter and the Excelsior. The USS Mars suffered with teething problems and was never deployed in action.
The existence of the USS Mars prompted the Klingons to begin their own battleship the B-10 IKV Kahless which was it's own brand of epic semi failure.
The USS Mars, USS Jupiter and USS Excelsior were the only Battleships the Federation ever made. The USS Jupiter was delayed in construction and then cancelled. After the Khitomer Accords the USS Mars was decomissioned and scraped. The USS Excelsior was refit as a "super-cruiser" and became wildly successful, gving rise to an exceptionally long lived class of starships.