While it is true that hundreds of persons were involved in hammering out the Articles of Federation, most are now forgotten. The ones remembered are those that in some flamboyant manner caught the attention of the public after the event was over. The signers of the documents that created the United Federation of Planets. These are the people that led the delegations, made the speeches and are required learning for school children the Federation over.
General Veseppi Kallfalx -- We shall have a Victory without Blood
The greatest victory is the one you don't fight for. Andor, having not that long ago fought off the Vegan Tyranny, and with Earth dealt a crushing blow to the Qzin was not ready to make friends with a multi-race alliance quite yet. They had barely avoided a shooting war with the Humans of the Three Suns Alliance. (Earth and Kentauri). Andor was edgy, and a little trigger happy.
General Veseppi Kallfalx, the Master Strategist of his day could see that an uneasy peace could quickly become a war that no one wanted, but everyone would fight. He sold the Andorian Council on the idea of the Treaty and then the Federation by comparing it to a victory won without blood. Andorians would be equal partners, not clients. Better far to win friends that win battles. Because of his reputation they listened, and sent him as a the Chief Delegate to the Convention.
General Kallfalx is the Father of Starfleet, it was he that suggested a fleet of ships for exploration and general defense that owed allegiance to no world, but the Federation at large, to be manned by all the worlds of the Federation.
Randal Gordon -- Together we are Greater than our Sum
A flashy and athletic man, a sports star in his university years. He was called "Flash" for his speed on the gridiron. Gordon served briefly in the USEPA, and entered politics at the age of 35.
It was the Three Suns Alliance that suggested to the Vulcans, Telleries and the Andorians that an alliance for mutual protection be formed. As the preliminary talks where under way. Randal Gordon laid a copy of the old United States Constitution on the table. He gave a moving speech of the power and influence of that nation, how they stabilized the world, preventing totalitarians from getting power, and passed their legacy on to a United Earth. In 300 years the document before him had taken a divided world, and united it, just by existing.
He co-opted the alliance talks with one speech. Instead of a loose military and trade alliance that it was doubtful would get signed by such diverse interests, he suggested, and championed a close federation of united systems whose diverse backgrounds and interests could only make it stronger. He ignited a spark, that others fanned into a flame that still burns.
Abraham Tacitus Dannon -- The Sighted Man of Peace
Abraham Dannon is revered today as the Federation's most honored statesman, though he was hated and despised as an appeaser in his own time. His work on the structure of the Federation council and the Federation Presidency is nearly forgotten.
Dannon is remembered as the architect of the Federation's treaty with the Romulan Star Empire, which brought an end to that long and bloody conflict. His treaty efforts were hampered by the desire of many council members to extract vengeance on the Romulans for the many Federation lives lost during that conflict. Realizing that a series of harsh treaty conditions would prolong the war, Dannon delivered his "Sighted Man of Peace" speech. This now famous speech convinced the Council members to soften their conditions, which included surrender of previously held Romulan systems, to bring about a much needed peace.
Though Dannon's efforts were eventually successful, he never lived to see their fruits. A dissident Andorian assassinated him four years after the ratification of the treaty bearing his name.
Gunphar Haarhuis -- We must maintain the Sovereign Will
Founder of his own trading house. It was a ship of Gunphar's House that "discovered" Earth, and it was he himself that signed the first treaty with Earth and Andor. He lived long enough to argue the case for individual sovereignty in the Federation charter, that each planet retained the right of sovereignty within the Federation. Both Earth and Vulcan were ready to sign it all over to a central authority. Andor was dead against, and Kentauri was wavering. Gunphar prevailed in a three hour speech that logically, and emotionally presented the principle that each world must remain sovereign in order for the Federation to exist. Both the principle and the Federation were saved that day.
Gunphar died, a old, and very rich Tellerite the day after the signing of the Federation Charter.
T'kal and Solin -- The voice of reason must be present to be heard.
T'kal the daughter of T'rul the Matriarch of Vulcan, and Solin her bondmate were personally chosen by T'rul to attend and observe the proceedings of the then called "Five Powers Treaty Convention". The two did much more than observe. They participated strongly, constantly pressing for reason and balance in every article.
After the Convention hammered out the Articles of Federation, T'kal and Solin had to convince the Vulcan people that breaking their long standing aloofness was the best and most reasonable course of action. This they did. In a brilliant display of reason they presented an argument that Vulcan joining with the emergent races would have a moderating voice among them. To remain outside would be to have no voice and to still be at risk in any wars they brought into the local group. To join, the possibility of war might still exist, but they would have a voice, and with that voice prevent senseless war before it started. Safer for Vulcan, and in their best interest.
Also notable at the convention was their young son Soren, later know as Soren the Elder. He is was often credited with being a "Founder", a label to which he would wryly disagree.
While the Ane are listed as the sixth signer of the Articles of Federation, and they are indeed charter members, they did not participant in the debates. Ane only observed. The debate that raged among the Ane was directly related to the convention, although unknown to it. The suggestion was made that as the Articles were shaping up that these five peoples had created something new in the Ane experience. A partnership, not an Empire. The suggestion was also made that the time had come to be a participant not simply an observer.
This move broke all the rules that Ane had thus far operated under. They had never directly affected a political process. As the signing drew to a close, the All decided. Falan present as an observer to the event stepped up and signed the agreement, placing her noseprint firmly on the documents. The first amendment to the Articles of Federation was the inclusion of "Ane Confederation" in all future publications of the document as a charter member.