The explosion of the Klingon moon Praxis in 2293 caused severe ecological disasters on Q'onoS and an almost complete shutdown of the Klingon economy. Following these events the Klingon chancellor Gorkon initiated peace talks with the Federation in which Captain Spock served as a special envoy to the Empire. The peace conference was first scheduled to be held on Earth, but was later relocated due to Chancellor Gorkon's assassination on his way to Earth. The new venue was Camp Khitomer, on the Klingon planet Khitomer, which was kept secret in order to prevent further assaults. Despite further actions by a Klingon/Federation/Romulan conspiracy, the Khitomer conference was a success and a turning point in Klingon-Federation relations.
The Khitomer accords ended a long cold-war between the Federation and the Klingon Empire and set the grounds for (near) peaceful coexistence for the next century.
The Federation retired a lot of starships with primarily combat missions right after the Khitomer accords. At the time Conservatives complained that this amounted to surrendering the Federation. They pointed out that the Romulans, Gorn and Qzin had signed no accords.
However the Militarized Starfleet of the 2280s and 2290s bothered a lot of Federation people both inside and outside of Starfleet. The Khitomer accords were essentially an excuse to stand down from wartime status and resume a more "Strange New Worlds" approach to Starfleet.
The gentlebeings were vindicated by not being promptly invaded and eaten by invaders encouraged by the change in focus.
The Khitomer Accords while occasionally referenced in diplomatic talks are considered Historical and no longer in force.